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Linxiao Zhu

John J. and Jean M. Brennan Clean Energy Early Career Professor
Assistant Professor


  • Mechanical Engineering

Research Areas:

Energy Systems; Thermal/Fluid Sciences

Interest Areas:

Nanoscale heat transport, nanoscale photonics, nano-calorimetry and nano-thermometry, energy harvesting, active and passive thermal management, optoelectronics




  • BS, Physics, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), 2010
  • MS, Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 2014
  • Ph D, Applied Physics, Stanford University, 2016


Journal Articles

  • Harsha Reddy, Kun Wang, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev, Linxiao Zhu, Shen Yan, Andrea Vezzoli, Simon J. Higgins, Vikram Gavini, Alexandra Boltasseva, Pramod Reddy, Vladimir M. Shalaev and Edgar Meyhofer, 2020, "Determining plasmonic hot-carrier energy distributions via single-molecule transport measurements", Science, 369, (6502), pp. 423-426
  • Dakotah Thompson, Linxiao Zhu, Edgar Meyhofer and Pramod Reddy, 2019, "Nanoscale radiative thermal switching via multi-body effects", Nature Nanotechnology, 15, (2), pp. 99-104
  • Linxiao Zhu, Anthony Fiorino, Dakotah Thompson, Rohith Mittapally, Edgar Meyhofer and Pramod Reddy, 2019, "Near-field photonic cooling through control of the chemical potential of photons", Nature, 566, (7743), pp. 239-244
  • Zhen Chen, Linxiao Zhu, Wei Li and Shanhui Fan, 2018, "Simultaneously and Synergistically Harvest Energy from the Sun and Outer Space", Joule, 3, (1), pp. 101-110
  • Dakotah Thompson, Linxiao Zhu, Rohith Mittapally, Seid Sadat, Zhen Xing, Patrick McArdle, M. Mumtaz Qazilbash, Pramod Reddy and Edgar Meyhofer, 2018, "Hundred-fold enhancement in far-field radiative heat transfer over the blackbody limit", Nature, 561, (7722), pp. 216-221
  • Anthony Fiorino, Linxiao Zhu, Dakotah Thompson, Rohith Mittapally, Pramod Reddy and Edgar Meyhofer, 2018, "Nanogap near-field thermophotovoltaics", Nature Nanotechnology, 13, (9), pp. 806-811
  • Anthony Fiorino, Dakotah Thompson, Linxiao Zhu, Rohith Mittapally, Svend-Age Biehs, Odile Bezencenet, Nadia El-Bondry, Shailendra Bansropun, Philippe Ben-Abdallah, Edgar Meyhofer and Pramod Reddy, 2018, "A Thermal Diode Based on Nanoscale Thermal Radiation", ACS Nano, 12, (6), pp. 5774-5779
  • Anthony Fiorino, Dakotah Thompson, Linxiao Zhu, Bai Song, Pramod Reddy and Edgar Meyhofer, 2018, "Giant Enhancement in Radiative Heat Transfer in Sub-30 nm Gaps of Plane Parallel Surfaces", Nano Letters, 18, (6), pp. 3711-3715
  • Linxiao Zhu, Yu Guo and Shanhui Fan, 2018, "Theory of many-body radiative heat transfer without the constraint of reciprocity", Physical Review B, 97, (9), pp. 094302
  • David A. Miller, Linxiao Zhu and Shanhui Fan, 2017, "Universal modal radiation laws for all thermal emitters", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, (17), pp. 4336-4341
  • Wei Li, Yu Shi, Kaifeng Chen, Linxiao Zhu and Shanhui Fan, 2017, "A Comprehensive Photonic Approach for Solar Cell Cooling", ACS Photonics, 4, (4), pp. 774-782
  • Raphael St-Gelais, Gaurang Ravindra Bhatt, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan and Michal Lipson, 2017, "Hot Carrier-Based Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion", ACS Nano, 11, (3), pp. 3001-3009
  • Zhen Chen, Linxiao Zhu, Aaswath Raman and Shanhui Fan, 2016, "Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day–night cycle", Nature Communications, 7, pp. 13729
  • Linxiao Zhu and Shanhui Fan, 2016, "Persistent Directional Current at Equilibrium in Nonreciprocal Many-Body Near Field Electromagnetic Heat Transfer", Physical Review Letters, 117, (13), pp. 134303
  • Augustine M Urbas, Zubin Jacob, Luca Dal Negro, Nader Engheta, A D Boardman, P Egan, Alexander B Khanikaev, Vinod Menon, Marcello Ferrera, Nathaniel Kinsey, Clayton DeVault, Jongbum Kim, Vladimir Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva, Jason Valentine, Carl Pfeiffer, Anthony Grbic, Evgenii Narimanov, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan, Andrea Alù, Ekaterina Poutrina, Natalia M Litchinitser, Mikhail A Noginov, Kevin F MacDonald, Eric Plum, Xiaoying Liu, Paul F Nealey, Cherie R Kagan, Christopher B Murray, Dorota A Pawlak, Igor I Smolyaninov, Vera N Smolyaninova and Debashis Chanda, 2016, "Roadmap on optical metamaterials", Journal of Optics, 18, (9), pp. 093005
  • Svetlana V Boriskina, Martin A Green, Kylie Catchpole, Eli Yablonovitch, Matthew C Beard, Yoshitaka Okada, Stephan Lany, Talia Gershon, Andriy Zakutayev, Mohammad H Tahersima, Volker J Sorger, Michael J Naughton, Krzysztof Kempa, Mario Dagenais, Yuan Yao, Lu Xu, Xing Sheng, Noah D Bronstein, John A Rogers, A Paul Alivisatos, Ralph G Nuzzo, Jeffrey M Gordon, Di M Wu, Michael D Wisser, Alberto Salleo, Jennifer Dionne, Peter Bermel, Jean-Jacques Greffet, Ivan Celanovic, Marin Soljacic, Assaf Manor, Carmel Rotschild, Aaswath Raman, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan and Gang Chen, 2016, "Roadmap on optical energy conversion", Journal of Optics, 18, (7), pp. 073004
  • Raphael St-Gelais, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan and Michal Lipson, 2016, "Near-field radiative heat transfer between parallel structures in the deep subwavelength regime", Nature Nanotechnology, 11, (6), pp. 515-519
  • Linxiao Zhu, Fengyuan Liu, Hongtao Lin, Juejun Hu, Zongfu Yu, Xinran Wang and Shanhui Fan, 2015, "Angle-selective perfect absorption with two-dimensional materials", Light: Science & Applications, 5, (3), pp. e16052
  • Linxiao Zhu, Aaswath P. Raman and Shanhui Fan, 2015, "Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, (40), pp. 12282-12287
  • Kaifeng Chen, Parthiban Santhanam, Sunil Sandhu, Linxiao Zhu and Shanhui Fan, 2015, "Heat-flux control and solid-state cooling by regulating chemical potential of photons in near-field electromagnetic heat transfer", Physical Review B, 91, (13)
  • Linxiao Zhu and Shanhui Fan, 2014, "Near-complete violation of detailed balance in thermal radiation", Physical Review B, 90, (22)
  • Aaswath P. Raman, Marc Abou Anoma, Linxiao Zhu, Eden Rephaeli and Shanhui Fan, 2014, "Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight", Nature, 515, (7528), pp. 540-544
  • Raphael St-Gelais, Biswajeet Guha, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan and Michal Lipson, 2014, "Demonstration of Strong Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Integrated Nanostructures", Nano Letters, 14, (12), pp. 6971-6975
  • Linxiao Zhu, Aaswath Raman, Ken Xingze Wang, Marc Abou Anoma and Shanhui Fan, 2014, "Radiative cooling of solar cells", Optica, 1, (1), pp. 32-38
  • Clayton R. Otey, Linxiao Zhu, Sunil Sandhu and Shanhui Fan, 2014, "Fluctuational electrodynamics calculations of near-field heat transfer in non-planar geometries: A brief overview", Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 132, pp. 3-11
  • Linxiao Zhu, Aaswath Raman and Shanhui Fan, 2013, "Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling", Applied Physics Letters, 103, (22), pp. 223902
  • Linxiao Zhu, Clayton R. Otey and Shanhui Fan, 2013, "Ultrahigh-contrast and large-bandwidth thermal rectification in near-field electromagnetic thermal transfer between nanoparticles", Physical Review B, 88, (18), pp. 184301
  • Kevin A. Arpin, Mark D. Losego, Andrew N. Cloud, Hailong Ning, Justin Mallek, Nicholas P. Sergeant, Linxiao Zhu, Zongfu Yu, Berç Kalanyan, Gregory N. Parsons, Gregory S. Girolami, John R. Abelson, Shanhui Fan and Paul V. Braun, 2013, "Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification", Nature Communications, 4, (1), pp. 2630
  • Linxiao Zhu, Sunil Sandhu, Clayton Otey, Shanhui Fan, Michael B. Sinclair and Ting Shan Luk, 2013, "Temporal coupled mode theory for thermal emission from a single thermal emitter supporting either a single mode or an orthogonal set of modes", Applied Physics Letters, 102, (10), pp. 103104
  • Linxiao Zhu, Clayton R. Otey and Shanhui Fan, 2012, "Negative differential thermal conductance through vacuum", Applied Physics Letters, 100, (4), pp. 044104

Research Projects

Honors and Awards

  • John J. and Jean M. Brennan Clean Energy Early Career Professorship, Pennsylvania State University, August 2020 - June 2023
  • MIT Technology Review 35 Innovators Under 35 (China region), MIT Technology Review, 2019
  • Guo Moruo Scholarship, University of Science and Technology of China, 2009
  • Cross-disciplinary Scholars in Science and Technology (CSST) program, University of California - Los Angeles, 2009


Service to Penn State:

Service to External Organizations:




With more than 60 faculty members, 330 graduate students, and 800 undergraduate students, the Penn State Department of Mechanical Engineering embraces a culture that welcomes individuals with a diversity of backgrounds and expertise. Our faculty and students are innovating today what will impact tomorrow’s solutions to meeting our energy needs, homeland security, biomedical devices, and transportation systems. We offer B.S. degrees in mechanical engineering as well as resident (M.S., Ph.D.) and online (M.S.) graduate degrees in mechanical engineering. See how we’re inspiring change and impacting tomorrow at

Department of Mechanical Engineering

137 Reber Building

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802-4400

Phone: 814-865-2519