Photo of Samuel Grauer

Samuel Grauer

Assistant Professor


  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Institute for Computational and Data Sciences

232 Research East


Research Website

Research Areas:

Sensors & Controls; Thermal/Fluid Sciences

Interest Areas:

Laser-based fluid flow and combustion diagnostics; 2D and 3D background-oriented schlieren (BOS); Sensor fusion; Data assimilation; Design-of-experiments; Statistical inverse analysis and uncertainty quantification




  • BS, Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, 2014
  • Ph D, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 2018


Journal Articles

  • Timothy A Sipkens, Samuel J Grauer, Adam M Steinberg, Steven N Rogak and Patrick Kirchen, 2021, "New transform to project axisymmetric deflection fields along arbitrary rays", Meas. Sci. Technol., 33, (3), pp. 035201
  • Nathan Brown, Samuel J Grauer, Jason A Deibel, Mitchell Walker and Adam M Steinberg, 2021, "Bayesian framework for THz-TDS plasma diagnostics", Opt. Express, 29, (4), pp. 4887-4901
  • Samuel J Grauer and Adam M Steinberg, 2020, "Fast and robust volumetric refractive index measurement by unified background-oriented schlieren tomography", Exp. Fluids, 61, pp. 80
  • Rodrigo B Miguel, Johannes Emmert, Samuel J Grauer and Kyle J Daun, 2020, "Optimal filter selection for quantitative gas mixture imaging", J. Quantit. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 254, pp. 107208
  • Samuel J Grauer and Adam M Steinberg, 2020, "Linear absorption tomography with velocimetry (LATV) for multiparameter measurements in high-speed flows", Opt. Express, 28, (22), pp. 32676-32692
  • Samuel J Grauer, Johannes Emmert, Scott T Sanders, Steven Wagner and Kyle J Daun, 2019, "Multiparameter gas sensing with linear hyperspectral absorption tomography", Meas. Sci. Technol., 30, (10), pp. 105401
  • Johannes Emmert, Samuel J Grauer, Steven Wagner and Kyle J Daun, 2019, "Efficient Bayesian inference of absorbance spectra from transmitted intensity spectra", Opt. Express, 27, (19), pp. 26893-26909
  • Samuel J Grauer, Bradley C Conrad, Rodrigo B Miguel and Kyle J Daun, 2018, "Gaussian model for emission rate measurement of a heated plume using hyperspectral data", J. Quantit. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 206, pp. 125-134
  • Timothy A Sipkens, Paul J Hadwin, Samuel J Grauer and Kyle J Daun, 2018, "Predicting the heat of vaporization of iron at high temperatures using time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and Bayesian model selection", J. Appl. Phys., 123, (9), pp. 095103
  • Samuel J Grauer, Andreas Unterberger, Andreas Rittler, Kyle J Daun, Andreas M Kempf and Khadijeh Mohri, 2018, "Instantaneous 3D flame imaging by background-oriented schlieren tomography", Combust. Flame, 196, pp. 284-299
  • Samuel J Grauer, Paul J Hadwin and Kyle J Daun, 2017, "Improving chemical species tomography of turbulent flows using covariance estimation", Appl. Opt., 56, (13), pp. 3900-3912
  • Samuel J Grauer, Roger W Tsang and Kyle J Daun, 2017, "Broadband chemical species tomography: Measurement theory and a proof-of-concept emission detection experiment", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 198, pp. 145-154
  • Samuel Grauer, Paul Hadwin, Timothy A Sipkens and Kyle J Daun, 2017, "Measurement-based meshing, basis selection, and prior assignment in chemical species tomography", Opt. Express, 25, (21), pp. 25135-25148
  • Timothy A Sipkens, Paul J Hadwin, Samuel J Grauer and Kyle J Daun, 2017, "General error model for analysis of laser-induced incandescence signals", Appl. Opt., 56, (30), pp. 8436-8445
  • Kyle J Daun, Samuel J Grauer and Paul J Hadwin, 2016, "Chemical species tomography of turbulent flows: Discrete ill-posed and rank deficient problems and the use of prior information", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 172, pp. 58-74
  • Samuel J Grauer, Paul J Hadwin and Kyle J Daun, 2016, "Bayesian approach to the design of chemical species tomography experiments", Appl. Opt., 55, (21), pp. 5772-5782
  • Samuel J Grauer, Etienne J F R Caron, Noel L Chester, Mary A Wells and Kyle J Daun, 2015, "Investigation of melting in the Al–Si coating of a boron steel sheet by differential scanning calorimetry", J. Mater. Process. Technol., 216, pp. 89-94

Research Projects

Honors and Awards


Service to Penn State:

Service to External Organizations:




With more than 60 faculty members, 330 graduate students, and 800 undergraduate students, the Penn State Department of Mechanical Engineering embraces a culture that welcomes individuals with a diversity of backgrounds and expertise. Our faculty and students are innovating today what will impact tomorrow’s solutions to meeting our energy needs, homeland security, biomedical devices, and transportation systems. We offer B.S. degrees in mechanical engineering as well as resident (M.S., Ph.D.) and online (M.S.) graduate degrees in mechanical engineering. See how we’re inspiring change and impacting tomorrow at

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